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Made in America: a look inside Motorola's Moto X factory

Editor's note: On May 30, 2014, Motorola announced plans to close its Texas assembly plant by the end of the year.

The Moto X is a return to form for Motorola, and it represents the first device it has produced from start to finish as a Google company. But while the Moto X is a good smartphone in its own right, half of the story is Motorola's surprising decision to move its final assembly to the US. This, according to the company, is what enables it to offer a quick turnaround time and direct fulfillment for customized, built-to-order devices.

To accomplish this, Motorola partnered with Flextronics to refab a factory in Texas formerly used by Nokia. In a mere six months, the factory was completely updated and transformed to Motorola's specifications, which included the hiring of 2,500 workers to make it run. Motorola did not actually make a final call to do manufacturing in the US until late 2012, but the factory was operational by August 6th of this year. The factory currently puts out about 100,000 devices per week, but Motorola says that it's possible to scale it to tens of millions of units. Given that more than half of the over 400,000 square foot factory floor sits unused right now, that's not too hard to believe.

Motorola CEO Dennis Woodside tells us that having the factory in the US was crucial for the MotoMaker customization program to even exist, but it also offers other benefits to the company from an engineering standpoint. Since Motorola's devices are designed in the US, having the manufacturing close by lets engineers make quick changes and tweaks to the design and look of the device much faster than if it were located overseas.

"There is a premium [with building in the US] but it's not material to the economics of the business. It's a myth that you can't bring manufacturing here because it's too expensive," says Woodside. "We've observed that wages in Asia are going up, wages here are relatively steady, consumers care more about where their products are being built, and you have advantages of having design close to your manufacture. Those advantages will well outweigh the costs that we have today and those costs will go down over time."

For Motorola, final device assembly in the US is just a start. The next step the company hopes to accomplish is to move the fabrication of the external components — the back casing, the bezels surrounding the display and the camera, and the volume and power buttons, etc. — to the US. It also expects other companies in the consumer electronics industry to follow suit. "If you look at the automotive industry or home appliances, manufacturing is coming back to the US, and there's good reasons for it," says Woodside.

Motorola isn't shifting all of its manufacturing to the US just yet. As it is, the Texas factory is only used for final assembly — most of the external and visible parts of the phone are built in Asia and then shipped over (Woodside says that other internal components are already sourced from about 15 states across the country). Motorola is also maintaining its factories in China, Brazil, and Argentina. "There are some products for which that cost differential is significant, and it does change your economics," notes Woodside. "For a high-tier phone like the Moto X, it doesn't."

Whether other consumer electronics companies jump on the bandwagon being steered by Motorola remains to be seen, but the company says it is playing the long game. "We're committed to Moto X here and we're thinking for future generations of product and how we're going to use this facility," claims Woodside. "It's going to take some time for us to deliver the kind of innovation that Google aspires to and for the world to see that, but we're taking a very long-term view."

  • The factory that Motorola is using to build the Moto X is owned by Flextronics and used to be a Nokia factory.

    The factory that Motorola is using to build the Moto X is owned by Flextronics and used to be a Nokia factory.

  • There are roughly 2,500 employees in this factory with 14 assembly lines. According to Flextronics, the output is about 100,000 devices per week.

    There are roughly 2,500 employees in this factory with 14 assembly lines. According to Flextronics, the output is about 100,000 devices per week.

  • Here's another look at the assembly lines. These lines are tasked with assembling the internal components and front of the device, or as Motorola calls it,  the ENDO. The assembly begins on the right side and ends at the inspection machines on the left.

    Here's another look at the assembly lines. These lines are tasked with assembling the internal components and front of the device, or as Motorola calls it, the ENDO. The assembly begins on the right side and ends at the inspection machines on the left.

  • For the standard black and white versions of the Moto X, each line is dedicated to a specific carrier. Here you can see this one handles orders for AT&T.

    For the standard black and white versions of the Moto X, each line is dedicated to a specific carrier. Here you can see this one handles orders for AT&T.

  • Each factory worker has a specific piece to place and assemble on the device before it is passed along the line.

    Each factory worker has a specific piece to place and assemble on the device before it is passed along the line.

  • This map shows how the factory floor is currently laid out.

    This map shows how the factory floor is currently laid out.

  • A few of the components that go into the Moto X and are assembled in the US. The components, such as the PCB board in the upper right, are shipped to the US from Asia with their circuitry already completed. There is no soldering done in this factory.

    A few of the components that go into the Moto X and are assembled in the US. The components, such as the PCB board in the upper right, are shipped to the US from Asia with their circuitry already completed. There is no soldering done in this factory.

  • A look at the main circuit board before it is eventually clipped into its housing.

    A look at the main circuit board before it is eventually clipped into its housing.

  • A look at some of the various stations in the manufacturing line. The battery is one of the last pieces put in before the outer shell is snapped on and is the far left station in this picture.

    A look at some of the various stations in the manufacturing line. The battery is one of the last pieces put in before the outer shell is snapped on and is the far left station in this picture.

  • This half of the factory floor is dedicated to assembling custom orders placed through MotoMaker.

    This half of the factory floor is dedicated to assembling custom orders placed through MotoMaker.

  • These automated bins are where the various color components are pulled from to make a customer's unique device.

    These automated bins are where the various color components are pulled from to make a customer's unique device.

  • Green means go, or in this case, the location of the correct color component.

    Green means go, or in this case, the location of the correct color component.

  • Smaller custom components, such as the camera bezel and volume rocker, are housed in these bins.

    Smaller custom components, such as the camera bezel and volume rocker, are housed in these bins.

  • Once a custom device has been assembled, these machines use advanced cameras to optically confirm that the right color combinations have been selected.

    Once a custom device has been assembled, these machines use advanced cameras to optically confirm that the right color combinations have been selected.

  • Motorola has coated the internal components many of its devices with water repellent nano-coatings for years. These machines are where that happens, before the components go to the main assembly line.

    Motorola has coated the internal components many of its devices with water repellent nano-coatings for years. These machines are where that happens, before the components go to the main assembly line.

  • A factory worker inspects a batch of completed fronts of the Moto X.

    A factory worker inspects a batch of completed fronts of the Moto X.

  • Some Moto X devices that will eventually make it to AT&T retail stores.

    Some Moto X devices that will eventually make it to AT&T retail stores.

  • Some examples of the custom backs that customers can choose from through the MotoMaker program. You can see the promised wooden backs here, but Motorola has not started offering them yet.

    Some examples of the custom backs that customers can choose from through the MotoMaker program. You can see the promised wooden backs here, but Motorola has not started offering them yet.

  • A couple of factory workers show off assembled versions of Moto X devices ordered through MotoMaker.

    A couple of factory workers show off assembled versions of Moto X devices ordered through MotoMaker.

  • Motorola CEO Dennis Woodside, Google Chairman Eric Schmidt, Texas Governor Rick Perry, and Flextronics CEO Mike McNamara make small talk before addressing a crowd at the factory's formal opening. Governor Perry credits Texas' business friendly tax environment as a reason why Motorola was able to move manufacturing back to the US.

    Motorola CEO Dennis Woodside, Google Chairman Eric Schmidt, Texas Governor Rick Perry, and Flextronics CEO Mike McNamara make small talk before addressing a crowd at the factory's formal opening. Governor Perry credits Texas' business friendly tax environment as a reason why Motorola was able to move manufacturing back to the US.

  • Dennis Woodside presented Governor Perry with his own custom Moto X in Texas A&M colors. (Just prior to this, Governor Perry took his iPhone out of his pocket and threw it on the ground.)

    Dennis Woodside presented Governor Perry with his own custom Moto X in Texas A&M colors. (Just prior to this, Governor Perry took his iPhone out of his pocket and threw it on the ground.)

  • Motorola CEO Dennis Woodside gives Governor Perry some tips on how to use his new Moto X. We're not sure if Governor Perry was attempting to take a selfie or not.

    Motorola CEO Dennis Woodside gives Governor Perry some tips on how to use his new Moto X. We're not sure if Governor Perry was attempting to take a selfie or not.

  • Governor Perry and Eric Schmidt observe the manufacturing on the factory floor while Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban watches on.

    Governor Perry and Eric Schmidt observe the manufacturing on the factory floor while Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban watches on.

  • Eric Schmidt shows off some of the custom color combinations for the Moto X to Governor Perry.

    Eric Schmidt shows off some of the custom color combinations for the Moto X to Governor Perry.

  • A look at the 455,000 square foot Flextronics factory from above. The factory is one of a number of other factories and warehouses located in the area, including ones owned by Lockheed Martin and Amazon.

    A look at the 455,000 square foot Flextronics factory from above. The factory is one of a number of other factories and warehouses located in the area, including ones owned by Lockheed Martin and Amazon.


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